Dosage forms of drugs

Dosage forms of drugs

Dosage forms given orally:

Liquid preparations:

Liquid preparations refer to pharmaceutical formulations that are in a liquid form, such as solutions, suspensions, and emulsions.

Mixtures -> dissolve in water

Emulsions -> Mixture of two immiscible liquid.

Syrups -> Concentrated solutions of sugar containing drugs.

Tincture -> Alcoholic or hydro alcoholic preparations of vegetable drugs.

Elixirs -> Sweetened, flavoured hydro alcoholic solutions containing drugs.

Solid preparations:

Solid preparations refer to pharmaceutical formulations that are in a solid form, such as tablets, capsules, powders, and granules.

These solid medications are designed to be taken orally and are formulated to provide a specific dose of active ingredients to the patient. Solid preparations can also include topical products such as ointments and creams that are applied to the skin.

The advantage of solid preparations is that they are convenient to take and can be easily stored, transported, and dispensed by healthcare providers.

They also provide a more precise dosage compared to liquid preparations, which can be affected by factors such as gravity and temperature.

Tablets -> Solid discs prepared by compressing the drug in granular form.

Enteric coated tablets -> Coated with substances that resist acidic juice in stomach but dissolve in alkaline use of intestine.

Capsules -> Shells of gelatin containing drug. They may be enteric coated.

Dosage forms given rectally:

Rectal preparations are pharmaceutical formulations that are intended for administration by the rectum. These preparations are typically used for local or systemic effects and include suppositories, enemas, and rectal foams.

Suppositories -> Solid preparations inserted into rectum.

Suppositories are solid or semisolid preparations that are designed to be inserted into the rectum where they melt or dissolve, releasing the active ingredients for absorption into the blood stream. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as Constipation, haemorrhoid’s, and inflammatory bowel disease.


  • Bisacodyl,
  • Glycerol.

Enemas -> Liquid preparations used per rectum.

Enemas are liquid medications that are administered through the rectum. They are often used to relieve Constipation, but can also be used to deliver medications to treat other conditions such as ulcerative colitis, enemas may contain laxatives, anti-inflammatory drugs or other medications.


  • olive oil,
  • sodium citrate,
  • hypertonic phosphate.

Dosage forms given parenterally:

Parenteral preparations are medications that are intended to be administered through a route other than the digestive tract, such as intravenous (IV) intramuscular (IM) subcutaneous (SC) or intradermal (ID) injection. They can also be administered through other routes such as intrathecal, intra articular, or intra ocular, depending on the specific medication and the condition being treated.

Parenteral preparations are often used when a medication needs to be absorbed quickly and efficiently, when the medication cannot be taken orally, or when the patient is unable to take medications orally. Common examples of parental preparations include antibiotics, pain medications, chemotherapy drugs, and vaccines.

Ampoules -> Contain single dose.

Vials -> Rubber capped bottles containing more than one dose.

Dosage forms given through respiratory tract:

Respiratory tract preparations are medications that are used to treat conditions affecting the respiratory system, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. These medications are delivered directly into the lungs through inhalation.

Inhalers are the most common type of respiratory tract preparations. They contain a medication that is dispersed in a fine mist or powder, which is inhaled through the mouth into the lungs. Inhaler may be either pressurised metered dose inhalers (PMDIS) or dry powder inhalers (DPIS) depending on the type of medication being delivered.

Gasses -> Volatile liquids, Steam inhalation

Aerosols -> Drug is released into respiratory tract in the form of a fine mist of liquid droplets.

Dosage forms for topical applications:

Topical preparations are medications that are applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, such as the mouth or vagina. These medications are designed to be absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes and into the bloodstream, where they can have their therapeutic effects.

Topical preparations can come in various forms, including creams, gels, lotions, ointments, powders, and patches. They are commonly used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and acne, as well as to provide pain relief for muscle and joint pain.

Topical preparations can also be used to deliver medications to specific areas of the body, such as the eyes, ears, and nose. Eye drops and ointments are commonly used to treat eye infections and inflammation, while nasal sprays are used to treat allergies and nasal congestion.

When using topical preparations, it is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider or the medication label. Improper use can lead to complications, such as skin irritation or systemic side effects. It is also important to avoid applying topical medications to broken skin or mucous membranes, as this can increase the risk of infection or other complications.

Ointments  -> Semi solid preparations for application on skin or mucous membranes.

Lotions -> aqueous suspensions.

Lozenges -> Tablet like formulation for slow dissolution in mouth. These are pharmaceutical candies.

Ophthalmic solutions -> aqueous solutions of drugs for eye.

  • Ear and nose drops.
  • Mouth washes and gargles.
  • Powders.

Vaginal douches -> aqueous solutions with antiseptic properties.

Learn More

Dosage forms of drugs

What are the dosage forms of drugs?

Dosage forms given orally

What is liquid preparations.?

What is mixture?

What is emulsions?

What is syrups?

What is solid preparations?

What is tablets, enteric coated tablets?

Dosage forms given rectally

What is suppositories and enemas?

Dosage forms given parenterally

What is ampules and vials?

Dosage forms given through respiratory tract

What is aerosoles?

Dosage forms for topical application

What is ointment’s?

What is lotions?

What is Lozenges?

What is ophthalmic solutions?

What is vaginal douches?

Post a Comment