What is Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents?

Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

All of the clinically to be had ẞ-blockers are aggressive antagonists, Nonselective ẞ-blockers act at each B, and B, receptors, while cardioselectivity ẞ antagonists mainly block B, receptors. [Note: There aren't any clinically beneficial ẞ, antagonists.) 

These tablets additionally range in intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, CNS outcomes, blockade of sympathetic receptors, vasodilation, and pharmacokinetics .Although all (-blockers decrease blood stress, they do now no longer result in postural hypotension, due to the fact the a adrenoceptors continue to be functional. 

Therefore, regular sympathetic manage of the vasculature is maintained. B-Blockers are powerful in treating high blood pressure, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, coronary heart failure, hyperthyroidism, and glaucoma. They also are used for the prophylaxis of migraine headaches. [Note: The names of all -blockers end in olol except for labetalol and carvedilol.]

Propranolol: (A nonselective ẞ antagonist) 

Propranolol is the prototype ẞ-adrenergic ant agonist and blocks each p, and B, receptors with same affinity. Sustained launch arrangements for once-a-day dosing are to be had.



Propranolol diminishes cardiac output, having each bad inotropic and chronotropic outcomes . It immediately depresses sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal activity. The ensuing bradycardia commonly limits the dose of the drug. During exercising or stress, while the sympathetic fearful system is activated, ẞ-blockers attenuate the predicted growth in coronary heart rate. 

Cardiac output, workload, and oxygen intake are reduced via way of means of blockade of ẞ, receptors, and those outcomes are beneficial withinside the remedy of angina. The B-blockers are powerful in attenuating supraventricular cardiac arrhythmias, however typically aren't powerful in opposition to ventricular arrhythmias (besides the ones prompted via way of means of exercising).

Peripheral vasoconstriction: 

Nonselective blockade of ẞ receptors prevents p,-mediated vasodilation in skeletal muscles, growing peripheral vascular resistance . The discount in cardiac output produced via way of means of all ß-blockers ends in reduced blood stress, which triggers a reflex peripheral vasoconstriction this is pondered in decreased blood glide to the periphery. 

In sufferers with high blood pressure, general peripheral resistance returns to regular or decreases with long time use of propranolol. There is a slow discount of each systolic and diastolic blood pressures in hypertensive sufferers.



Blocking ẞ, receptors within side the lungs of susceptible sufferers reasons contraction of the bronchiolar easy muscle . This can precipitate an exacerbation in sufferers with continual obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchial allergies. Therefore, ß-blockers, particularly, nonselective ones, are contraindicated in sufferers with COPD or bronchial allergies.

Disturbances in glucose metabolism: 

ẞ blockade ends in reduced glycogenolysis and reduced glucagon secretion. Therefore, if propranolol is given to a diabetic affected person receiving insulin, cautious tracking of blood glucose is essential, due to the fact said hypoglycemia may also arise after insulin injection. -blockers additionally attenuate the regular physiologic reaction to hypoglycemia.

Blocked motion of isoproterenol: 

Nonselective B-blockers, such as propranolol, have the capacity to dam the moves of isoproterenol (B,,B, agonist) at the cardiovascular system. Thus, withinside the presence of a ß-blocker, isoproterenol does now no longer produce cardiac stimulation (p, mediated) or discounts in suggest arterial stress and diastolic stress . 

[Note: In the presence of a nonselective p-blocker, epinephrine no longer lowers diastolic blood pressure or stimulates the heart, but its vasoconstrictive action (mediated by a receptors) remains unimpaired. The actions of norepinephrine on the car diovascular system are mediated primarily by a receptors and are, therefore, unaffected.]

Therapeutic uses: 


Propranolol does now no longer lessen blood stress in humans with regular blood stress. Propranolol lowers blood stress in high blood pressure via way of means of numerous one of a kind mechanisms of motion. 

Decreased cardiac output is the number one mechanism, however inhibition of renin launch from the kidney, lower in general 'peripheral resistance with lengthy-time period use, and reduced sympathetic outflow from the CNS additionally make contributions to the antihypertensive outcomes .

Angina pectoris: 

Propranolol decreases the oxygen requirement of coronary heart muscle and, therefore, is powerful in decreasing chest ache on exertion this is not unusualplace in angina. Propranolol is, thus, beneficial withinside the continual control of strong angina.

Myocardial infarction: 

Propranolol and different p-blockers have a protecting impact at the myocardium. Thus, sufferers who've had one myocardial infarction appear like covered in opposition to a 2d coronary heart assault via way of means of prophylactic use of B-blockers. In addition, management of a B-blocker at once following a myocardial infarction reduces infarct length and speeds up recovery. 

The mechanism for those outcomes can be a blocking off of the moves of circulating catecholamines, which could growth the oxygen call for in an already ischemic coronary heart muscle. Propranolol additionally reduces the prevalence of surprising arrhythmic dying after myocardial infarction.


Propranolol is powerful in decreasing migraine episodes while used prophylactically . It is one of the extra beneficial B-blockers for this indication, because of its lipophilic nature that permits it to penetrate the CNS. [Note: For the acute management of migraine, serotonin agonists such as sumatriptan are used, as well as other drugs.]


After oral management, propranolol is nearly absolutely absorbed. It is problem to first-byskip impact, and most effective approximately 25% of an administered dose reaches the circulate The extent of distribution of propranolol is pretty large (four L/kg), and the drug without problems crosses the blood-mind barrier because of its excessive lipophilicity. Propranolol is substantially metabolized, and maximum metabolites are excreted withinside the urine.

Adverse outcomes


Propranolol has the ability to motive sizeable bronchoconstriction because of blockade of P₂ receptors , Death via way of means of asphyxiation has been mentioned for sufferers with bronchial allergies whom have been inadvertently administered the drug. Therefore, propranolol is contraindicated in sufferers with COPD or bronchial allergies.


Treatment with B-blockers need to in no way be stopped all of sudden due to the chance of precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, which can be severe. The p-blockers need to be tapered off progressively over a duration of as a minimum some weeks. Long-time period remedy with a B antagonist ends in up-law of the Preceptor. On suspension of therapy, the extended receptors can get worse angina or high blood pressure.

Sexual impairment: 

Because ejaculation withinside the male is mediated thru a-adrenergic activation, 8-blockers do now no longer have an effect on ejaculation or inner bladder sphincter function. On the alternative hand, a few guys do whinge of impaired sexual activity. The motives for this aren't clean and can be unbiased of Preceptor blockade.

Drug interactions: 

Drugs that intrude with, or inhibit, the metabolism of propranolol, which include cimetidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and ritonavir, may also potentiate its antihypertensive outcomes. Conversely, people who stimulate or result in its metabolism, which include barbiturates, phenytoin, and rifampin, can lower its outcomes.

Nadolol and timolol: 

Nonselective ẞ antagonists: Nadolol and timolol additionally block B,- and B-adrenoceptors and are stronger than propranolol. Nadolol has a completely lengthy length of motion . Timolol reduces the seasoned duction of aqueous humor in the attention. It is used topically within side the remedy of continual open-perspective glaucoma and, occasionally, for systemic remedy of high blood pressure.

Treatment of glaucoma: 

beta-blockers, which include topically carried out timolol, betaxolol, or carteolol, are powerful in diminishing intraocular stress in glaucoma. This happens via way of means of reducing the secretion of aqueous humor-via way of means of-the-ciliary body. Unlike the cholinergic. tablets, those sellers neither have an effect on the capacity of the attention to attention for close to imaginative and prescient nor alternate student length. 

When administered intraocularly, the onset is ready 30 minutes, and the outcomes ultimate for 12 to 24 hours. The B-blockers are most effective used for continual control of glaucoma.. In an acute assault of glaucoma, pilocarpine remains the drug of preference for emergency reducing of intraocular stress.

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