Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bond:

Chemical bond is the force that holds two or more than two atoms , ions or molecules together is called chemical bond.

In chemical bond formation rearrangement of electrons occurs.

Cause of chemical bonding:

The tendency of an element to attain a stable electronic configuration is the cause of chemical bonding.

The chemical reactivity of elements depends upon their characteristic electronic configuration.

On the basis of chemical reactivity,  elements are classified into two types

1     Inert elements:

The inert elements have stable electronic configuration of valence shell. show little chemical reactivity. However Xe forms certain compounds like XeF2, XeO3, etc. A noble gas doesn't react with another noble gas. The cause of chemical inertness is the filled outermost shell of each noble gas.

2   Reactive elements:

These elements combine with the other elements in order to attain the nearest inert gas configuration .

E.g. Hydrogen shares one electron with another hydrogen and resembles helium with two electrons. Na loses one electron and resembles neon with ten electrons .Chlorine gains one electron and resembles Argon with eighteen.* chemical bonding 

Types of Bonds:

On the basis of lewis concept, the different types of bonds are as follows

·        ● Ionic bond

·        ● Covalent bond

Types of covalent bond

·        ● Non-polar covalent bonds

·        ● Polar covalent bonds

·        ● Single covalent bonds

·        ● Double covalent bonds

·        ● Triple covalent bonds

·        ● Co-ordinate covalent bonds

Ionic Bond:

The type of chemical bond that is formed by complete transfer of electrons is known as ionic bond.

This type of bond is formed between elements with low ionization energy and elements with high electron affinity.

Ionic compounds are also known as electrovalent compounds. In these compounds there are a strong electrostatic force of attraction between cations and anions which is responsible for stability of these compounds. Because ions exert forces in all directions that’s why ionic bond is non-directional.* chemical bonding 

Covalent bond:

A covalent bond is defined as the type of chemical bond that is formed through mutual sharing of electrons between the two atoms.

A covalent bond may be non-polar or polar in character.

Types of covalent bond:

Non-polar covalent bond:

In non-polar covalent bond electrons are equally shared between two atoms, and bond is said to be non-polar covalent bond.



Polar covalent bond:

In polar covalent bond electrons are not equally shared between two atoms,  and bond is said to be polar covalent bond.




The shared pair of electrons is displaced towards the more electronegative atom.this make one end of molecule partially positive and other end of molecule partially negative that’s why it is called polar molecules.

Because polar bond has ionic character that’s why it is also called partially ionic bond.* chemical bonding 

Single covalent bond:

It is a type of covalent bond that is formed through sharing of one electron pair.



Double covalent bond:

It is the type of covalent bond that is formed through sharing of two electron pairs.



Triple covalent bond:

It is the type of covalent bond that is formed through sharing of three electron pairs.


C _= C

Co-ordinate covalent bond:

Co-ordinate covalent bond is also called dative bond.

A co-ordinate covalent bond is formed between two atoms when the shared pair of electrons is donated by one of the bonded atoms.

An example of co-ordinate covalent bond formation is that formed between NH3 and BF3.

Co-ordinate covalent chemical bond

The element that donates electrons is known as donor and the one that accepts is known as acceptor.

Co-ordinate covalent bond is represented by arrow head à that runs from donor to acceptor. The complex produced is overall neutral and charges are indicated on N and B atoms.* chemical bonding 

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