Types Of Hybridization | Types Of Conjugation

Concept of hybridization:

When carbon forms methane , then the bond strength of the bond formed between 2s of C and 1s of H must be different from that of the other bonds due to difference in shapes and energies. But experimentally it was seen that bond strength of all the 4 bonds is the same, this show that orbitals must have mixed to form orbitals of same shapes and energies.


The process of mixing of orbitals of different shapes and energies to form equivalent orbitals of the same shapes and energies is known as hybridization.

Types of hybridization:

1) Sp3 hybridization

2) Sp2 hybridization

3) Sp hybridization

sp3 hybridization:

Sp3 hybridization

The process in which one s and three p orbitals mix to form a new set of four equivalent sp3 hybrid orbitals is known as sp3 hybridization.


Methane,  ethane, ammonia and water are formed through this type of hybridization.

In sp3 hybridization there is the promotion of electrons from s orbital to p orbital and by hybridization making the 4 sp3 orbitals.* types of hybridization 

Sp2 hybridization:

Sp2 hybridization

The process in which one s and two p orbitals mix to form a new set of three equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals is known as sp2 hybridization.


Ethene and boron triflouride are formed through this type of hybridization.

The purpose of leaving one P orbital unhybrid is to form pi bond. The number of unhybrid orbitals is equal to the number of pi bonds.* types of hybridization 

Sp hybridization:

Sp hybridization

The process in which one S and one P orbital mix to form a new set of two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals is known as sp hybridization.


Ethyne and beryllium dichloride are formed through sp hybridization.


Conjugation is the

• delocalization of electrons

• impart stability ( stability of ionic system)

• only with pi bonds and lone pair

• No relation with sigma bond.

That’s means movement of electrons ( pi electrons or lone pair ) in saturated ( single bond ) as well as in unsaturated double and triple bond ) system.

E.g. of saturated system



In the saturated system the 0 have lone pair  and it will give the lone pair to C and make the double bond by conjugation.

E.g. of unsaturated system



In the unsaturated system the movement of electrons from 1 carbon to 2 and then it is up to 2 carbon to make bond with 1 carbon or 3 carbon then it will make double bond with 3 carbon by conjugation.

Conditions for conjugation:

all the atoms should be sp2 hybridized

•all the p orbitals should be in same plane ( parallel to each other )

•p orbitals are not orthogonal ( perpendicular) to each other

•conjugation leads to decrease in energy of system therefore cause the stability.

Types of conjugation:

1)Linear conjugation

2)Cross conjugation

Linear conjugation:

In linear conjugation all pi bonds participate in conjugation there is the transfer of electrons is linear,  transfer of electrons in one line.



Cross conjugation:

When out of 2 pi bonds participate in conjugation then this is called cross conjugation.

Linear conjugation show more stability And linear conjugation is always greater than cross conjugation.

Learn more 

Related search 

What is concept of hybridization?

What is hybridization?

Types of hybridization 

Sp3 hybridization 

Sp2 hybridization 

Sp hybridization 

Why hybridization occurs?

What is conjugation?

Conditions for conjugation 

Types of conjugation 

Linear conjugation 

Cross conjugation 

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